Whenever you want to access a website on the internet, the Domain Name System (DNS) makes sure you don’t end up with the wrong thing.
The DNS keeps a directory that lets it match IP addresses to corresponding domain names stored in its database. This database holds tons of updated DNS records and text files associated with handling a domain request.
In this article, we’ll explore DNS Servers, DNS Records, and how they operate.
What are DNS Records?
Think of DNS records as an archive for domains. The archive has authoritative instruction on domain locations, type of content hosted on the domain server, how to access it, and when it’ll expire.
The DNS records effectively command DNS servers on what to do. All domains have essential DNS records hosted on DNS nameservers that enable users to access their sites.
What are Nameservers?
A nameserver is another name for a DNS server. It houses an enormous archive, albeit decentralized, of domain names and matching IP addresses.
The nameserver is the backbone of the modern-day internet and is responsible for telling your computer what to do when you’re sending an email or looking up stuff on the web.
When you look up a website, the DNS resolver (which is also a DNS server) attempts to resolve the query by accessing DNS records at the top-level domains such as .com or .org, located at the DNS root server.
It requests specific information on a hostname (website) query from a higher-level authoritative nameserver. The nameserver query process ends when the nameserver returns the correct information on the IP address to the DNS client (your browser ).
How Does a DNS Server Work?
The idea behind DNS is an accessible phone book for the internet. Computers on the web access the site you’re trying to reach by sending a request to this phone book, which receives and answers your query with corresponding feedback.
Like how you dial and connect a number from your phone book, DNS connects with this internet directory through a DNS server. The DNS Server keeps information records that resolve domain names to corresponding IP addresses.
For instance, you’re more likely to remember www.scalahosting.com than you would a string of numeric characters. When you assess ScalaHosting, your browser performs a DNS query via a DNS server to get this IP address – 184.108.40.206 – your browser connects.
A DNS server resolves three types of queries.
In this query, the DNS Resolver resolves a hostname request from a DNS client. The resolver starts by accessing records at the DNS root server till it finds an Authoritative nameserver with relevant records on the IP address and other information on the hostname.
If the resolver doesn’t find any relevant information on the hostname, it comes back with an error message.
For a non-recursive query, the DNS Resolver already has partial or complete information on the hostname query stored in its local cache.
At this instance, the resolver returns a relevant DNS record to the DNS client or queries an Authoritative nameserver directly for complete DNS records.
In both cases, the DNS resolver has information on the hostname’s IP address and does not need to run extra queries.
The DNS resolver resolves the hostname query via many requests to multiple nameservers to return the best answers in the iterative query.
This happens when the resolver has no access to relevant records or can’t find it in its cache.
To solve this, it refers the DNS client to another Authoritative Nameserver or Domain Root Server at the required DNS zone.
Then, the DNS client repeats the entire query process against the new DNS server the resolver referred it to.
Types of DNS Records
When you register a domain from ScalaHosting, we host and manage that domain’s DNS records on our servers. The DNS servers edit, delete or create records for the domain assigned to it.
Because of this, we offer a way to manage some of your domain records without the technicalities involved. We’ve listed some of the common and less-common DNS records below.
Common Types of DNS Records
These records provide relevant information about a domain or hostname and its corresponding IP address.
The A Record is an Address Mapping Record. It stores the IPv4 address of a domain.
The A records also operate a DNS-based Blackhole List (DNSBL). This list helps email servers weed out and block messages from known spammer domains.
The Canonical Name (CNAME) Record forwards one domain to another domain through an alias.
Domains use the CNAME records in the absence of an A record. Because of this, all CNAME records point to another domain, not an IP address.
CERT Resource Record
The Certificate record keeps encryption certificates like:
This record is a DNS Reverse-lookup Pointer. It enables a resolver to provide an IP address and get a hostname as feedback.
The DNS Text record lets a domain administrator store human-readable texts in the DNS.
The Mail Exchanger (MX) Record directs outbound mail via an SMTP server to a mail server.
Less-Common Types of DNS Records
We’ve listed some DNS records responsible for other functions not directly associated with a hostname and IP address.
The Next Secure Record proves that a DNSSEC record is unavailable.
This record verifies Domain Name System Security Extension (DNSSEC) signatures through a public key.
The Delegation Name Record is similar to the CNAME Record but reroutes subdomains as well.
DNS records have other functions that enable users to view your website on the internet.
While free DNS service providers might host your domain with limited firewall protection, ScalaHosting guarantees 100 percent uptime, a robust firewall, and a fully managed website that caters to all your business needs.
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